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【中國新聞網】解讀中國碳衛星如何“以小見大”
發布時間:2016-12-23 來源:中國新聞網 張素 【字號:  

  12月22日凌晨在酒泉衛星發射中心成功升空的中國碳衛星,可以概括為“以小見大”。

  首先,“小”身材卻有“大”本領。

  碳衛星重約620公斤,由三部分組成:模塊化衛星平臺、高光譜與高空間分辨率二氧化碳探測儀、多譜段云與氣溶膠探測儀。

  為滿足碳衛星在5種觀測模式和十余種指向模式間自如切換的要求,衛星平臺研究人員為其打造出一副好“身板”。中國科學院微小衛星創新研究院碳衛星總設計師尹增山說,“復雜姿態指向控制系統”讓衛星能夠大角度姿態機動,跳出“太空華爾茲”。

  高光譜與高空間分辨率二氧化碳探測儀,以0.04納米的分辨率刷新中國光譜儀器新紀錄。中國科學院長春光機所研究員鄭玉權說,他們先用6年時間,建立全息衍射光柵的制造系統及相關檢測,相當于鍛造一把過濾色彩的“梳子”。

  探測儀的工作原理是在可見光和近紅外譜段,利用分子吸收譜線探測二氧化碳濃度。鄭玉權解釋,空氣中的二氧化碳分子會對陽光顏色有不同程度的吸收,探測儀先精準測量“色彩”,再反推出二氧化碳分子數量。

  多譜段云與氣溶膠探測儀負責測量云、大氣顆粒物等輔助信息,為科學家反向推演二氧化碳濃度剔除干擾因素。碳衛星工程地面應用系統總設計師楊忠東說,這臺儀器雖非“主角”,但它能監測大氣中的顆粒物,將為研究PM2.5等大氣污染成因提供重要數據支撐。

  其次,“大”噪音里找“小”目標。

  楊忠東說,二氧化碳氣體絕對含量少,要在大“噪音”中找到少量目標,難度極大。“國內優勢單位集中起來聯合攻關,填補了國內技術空白”。

  比如多譜段云與氣溶膠探測儀。二氧化碳和氣溶膠相近,通過這臺儀器,既解決了對二氧化碳監測的“噪音”干擾問題,也有助于科學分析兩者之間的聯系。

  根據設計要求,碳衛星的二氧化碳濃度監測精度優于4ppm(百萬分比濃度)。在大氣中,二氧化碳的濃度僅有萬分之四。換言之,碳衛星能夠發現二氧化碳的濃度出現1%的變化。

  據介紹,碳衛星開始長達3年的工作,每日記錄長約10小時的數據。當它在天上忙碌時,佳木斯、烏魯木齊和瑞典基律納站組成的碳衛星接收站網負責接收處理數據。

  最后,“小”衛星承擔“大”使命。

  中國科學技術部國家遙感中心總工程師李加洪說,在多種溫室氣體中,二氧化碳因與人類活動乃至每個國家的經濟基礎密切相關,因而地位獨特。

  此前全球已有兩顆二氧化碳監測衛星:日本在2009年發射的“呼吸”號溫室氣體觀測衛星,美國在2014年發射的OCO—2衛星。

  李加洪說,碳衛星不僅填補了中國在該領域的空白,而且整體水平高于“呼吸“號。它對全球大氣中二氧化碳濃度進行動態監測,給出全球碳分布數據,不僅體現了中國應對全球氣候變化采取的行動,也展現了負責任大國的擔當。

  完成在軌測試后,碳衛星將每隔16天對地球進行一次“體檢”,經過2—3個月數據累計,完成對地球的全覆蓋。科學家從中可以得到不同季節、不同地區碳排放情況的“體檢報告”。

  據了解,官方已經制定了碳衛星數據管理辦法,將適時與國內外共享數據。碳衛星數據還已加載到國家綜合地球觀測數據共享平臺,被列入全球生態環境遙感監測年度報告的專題。

  李加洪透露,中方還將與地球觀測組織共享碳衛星數據,通過中歐“龍計劃”合作開展深度研究。科學家希望能與歐美等碳衛星形成聯合觀測,共同造福人類。

(責任編輯:侯茜)
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